Virtio-fs is a shared file system that lets virtual machines access a directory tree on the host. Unlike existing approaches, it is designed to offer local file system semantics and performance.

Virtio-fs was started at Red Hat and is being developed in the Linux, QEMU, FUSE, and Kata Containers communities that are affected by code changes.

See the design document for a more in-depth explanation of virtio-fs.


Virtio-fs is under development and suitable for early benchmarking and testing.

Linux v5.4 and later includes virtio-fs. Earlier versions of Linux were supported via out-of-tree code here.

QEMU code is available here. See the HowTos for setup instructions.

Kata Containers 1.7 and later ships with virtio-fs support built-in.


IRC channel: #virtio-fs on chat.freenode.net

Mailing list: virtio-fs@redhat.com (list info)


Frequently Asked Questions

Why virtio-fs?

Virtio-fs is not a network file system repurposed for virtualization, it is specifically designed to take advantage of the locality of virtual machines and the hypervisor.

The goal of virtio-fs is to provide local file system semantics between multiple virtual machines sharing a directory tree. This is especially useful for lightweight VMs and container workloads, where shared volumes are a requirement.

Why a new file system?

Existing solutions to this problem, such as virtio-9p, are based on existing network protocols that are not optimized for virtualization use cases. As a result they do not perform as well as local file systems and do not provide the semantics that some applications rely on.

Virtio-fs takes advantage of the virtual machine’s co-location with the hypervisor to avoid overheads associated with network file systems.

How does it work?

Virtio-fs uses FUSE as the foundation. Unlike traditional FUSE where the file system daemon runs in userspace, the virtio-fs daemon runs on the host. A VIRTIO device carries FUSE messages and provides extensions for advanced features not available in traditional FUSE.

FUSE has no dependencies on a networking stack and exposes a rich native Linux file system interface that allows virtio-fs to act like a local file system.

How does virtio-fs exploit Direct Access (DAX)? [experimental]

File contents can be mapped into a memory window on the host, allowing the guest to directly access data from the host page cache. This has several advantages:

How does virtio-fs support coherence for metadata? [experimental]

A metadata version table in shared memory provides coherent access for multiple virtual machines without expensive communication. Version numbers for file system metadata are implemented using atomic compare-and-swap operations. Virtual machines refresh metadata when the version number has changed since they last cached a copy.